King’s African Rifles

KAR Monument in Zomba

Stamp celebrating the KAR

Driving through Zomba, the former capital of Malawi, it is impossible to miss the towering brick monument dedicated to those who served in the King’s African Rifles (K.A.R.).  Ornate and proud, it celebrates the victories and sacrifices of the many Malawians who served, not just in Africa, but around the world.

The Military branch, the King’s African Rifles, have a long history in what was first British Central Africa, then Nyasaland, and now Malawi.  When the region was still a rough frontier, missionaries and businessmen from the African Lakes Corporation banded together in 1888 to form a loose military force that could defend against slave raids.  The situation reached a crisis point when Mlozi, a slave trader in Karonga, massacred thousands of innocent people.  The military campaign against Mlozi, commanded by Captain F.D. Lugard, who happened to be passing through Nyasaland on a hunting safari, was a success. These events, along with Portuguese attacks in the Lower Shire, eventually led to Malawi being declared a British Protectorate in 1891.

With the new Protectorate came a formal military.  Captain Cecil Maguire recruited a small force of 150 Indian Sikh soldiers to form the corps of the British Central African Rifles.  The force engaged in several successful offences, so that by 1898, the Protectorate was experiencing a period of relative peace.  By this time, the Corps had expanded to two battalions and was sent to serve British interests abroad.  Soldiers from Nyasaland found themselves enforcing peace in Mauritius, engaging in battle against Mohammed Hassan (“The Mad Mullah”) in Somaliland, and fighting in Gambia, Ghana, Uganda, and Kenya.

In 1902, all British military forces in East and Central Africa were consolidated and renamed the King’s African Rifles.  Nyasaland’s battalions, the First and Second, which had already been in service for over fourteen years, became the senior regiments within the newly formed K.A.R.

In Nyasaland, the military influenced almost every aspect of social life.  Soldiers were often responsible for civil services; they would collect taxes, build roads and bridges, provide health care, and administer justice.  The sites of former forts are now some of Malawi’s largest towns, including Mangochi, Karonga, and Lilongwe.  The military influenced local culture as communities developed traditional dances that imitated the marching parades of army recruits.  The military even shaped the local language. Certain words, such as galimoto (car), basi (enough), and chai (tea), seem to have been adopted from the Indian soldiers who first made up the Rifle corps.

Over 300,000 Malawians served during World War I.  Soldiers fought against German forces in German East Africa (now Tanzania) and fought in Malawi, Uganda, and Kenya.  It was a difficult time for Malawian soldiers. There was a severe lack of sufficient rations and effective health care, which contributed to high death rates.

During the Second World War, soldiers were much better cared for and times were so much more civilized that veterans of both wars referred to World War II as the “war with tea.”  When World War II erupted, Malawian soldiers were sent to defend British East Africa (Kenya).  In one outstanding instance of bravery and valor, a company of 100 Malawian soldiers held their ground against 3,000 Italian forces at Moyale.  Their victory was a great boost for morale in British Africa and ensured the protection of a strategic region.  Malawians went on to serve in successful campaigns in Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia, and Madagascar.

Towards the end of the war, Malawian soldiers were deployed to Burma (Myanmar) to fight against Japanese forces.  An observer in Burma described the Nyasaland troops in an article that was republished in the July 12, 1945 edition of the Nyasaland Times.  He wrote,

as a people they [Nyasaland soldiers] grow on you. You become very fond of them and their many fine qualities. Their sense of humor is acute and even after a long and tiring march in great heat, there is always one of them with a ‘turn’ [improvisational humor]. The quality is valuable in a country like Burma where, when operations continue in the monsoon jungles, a sense of humor is worth its weight in grenades. When you are sodden with rain and your kit weighs an extra few pounds, without a fire at night and forced to sleep on the wet ground, the spirit of the Nyasa is not affected […] 

The troops of this battalion have seen plenty of the world, and will see plenty more before this war is finished. This will not change them very much. They can look after themselves in a dangerous world, and amuse themselves in the heaviest monsoon.

It is important to remember that Malawians were often drafted through forced conscription, yet they served with distinction and honor and were amongst the most respected soldiers in the Allied forces.

After independence in 1964, the King’s African Rifles became the First Battalion of Malawi Rifles of the Malawian Army.  Today, the army has developed and expanded and serves in peacekeeping missions throughout Africa, carrying on their long tradition of proud service.

KAR Parade, Zomba


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20 responses to “King’s African Rifles

  1. Kate! Thanks for this. The KAR monument is my favorite in Malawi. More men died of disease and malaria than from war injuries.

  2. Susie Carter

    What a wonderful military history of precious Malawi! Thank you, Kate. I so much enjoyed reading this post. I especially appreciate the sense of humor the Malawian forces showed — we saw that daily in the people we met last year at this time.

  3. Alex

    wonderful and fascinating!
    were you a history major – with honors? oh yea!

  4. Anonymous

    Kate, this is great! Do you have a picture of the KAR/Malawi Rifles Boma (headquarters) in Zomba?

  5. MB

    Kate do you have access to a list or documents of the officers from Zomba that served in the 2nd world war (Burma)?

    • Hi there!

      I don’t have such a list, but you could check with the society of Malawi archives in Blantyre… If they can’t help, the national archives are in zomba…. Wish I could help more!

      Sent from my iPad

  6. Anonymous

    Thanks for this interesting article. I lived in Zomba as a child so I’m familiar the KAR monument. It is Remeberance Sunday in the UK today and I was browsing for information to share on Facebook about the KAR, this post is perfect.

    • I’m so glad you found it interesting! Thanks for the comment!

      Sent from my iPad


    • John Orton

      I too enjoy happy memories of the War Memorial. I grew up in the army camp as my Father was in the KAR and the Malawi Army from 1945-1974. He was the last white officer to serve. Currently on holiday in Singapore where I came as a baby with the 1st and 3rd KAR in 1951/52. The battalions were based here during a campaign against uprisings in Malaya.
      I would be delighted to hear from anyone familiar with Zomba and the KAR.

      • PAUL


      • John Orton

        Hello Paul,
        Just a brief reply to your question as regards women in the KAR. As far as I know there were not any serving as soldiers, however the nurse aids in the army hospital must have been on the army payroll.

      • I also have many memories of the KAR memorial, I grew up in the Police Camp in Zomba, as my father was in the Nyasaland Police from 1940 – 1962. I was born in Zomba, and spent most of my early schooling in Zomba, before going as a boarder to Blantyre. had some wonderful picnics up the mountain. My grandfather arrived in Nyasaland in 1896, and eventually was the Blantyre Town Clerk until his death in 1931

  7. Anonymous

    Yes thank you for the KAR history. We passed this monument every day when welived there and gave no notice of it.

  8. My husband, Michael Pritchard, was Adjutant of the KAR in the 60s in Zomba and took part in the farewell parade in Salisbury. My eldest son, Phlilip, was born there. I have movies of the KAR marching in Zomba. I remember the Ortons well. They were at our farewell dinner given by Colonel Paul Lewis when we left.

  9. John Orton

    I remember Mike Pritchard. Did you move to Joburg and did your husband work for Greatermans? Lovely to share this blast from the past. By the way I have recently got back in touch with Bill Lewis, the younger son of Paul.

    • Dear John

      Thank you for replying so promptly. Yes, Mike did work for Greatermans and eventually ran his own business. He is now living somewhere in Roodepoort with his third Afrikaans
      wife. and we have not had contact for over 30 years. Robertson-Glasgow died recently and apart from that have no news of the ex KAR . I was very interested to hear about Billy Lewis and the last thing I remember about him was him singing a song from the Beatles on his parents porch in Zomba and his father, who was quite a serious chap,burst into giggles!! I have a lovely thatch home in Morningside with over 300 rosebushes and have built 5 cottages which I let. My elder son went to Zomba for his honeymoon and his wife got seriously ill from drinking water from the Shire River and so they had to return immediately.
      Do you have any news of Billy’s parents. I don’t suppose they would be alive now. Wasn’t his brother called Allan?
      You don’t mention where you are now or what you are doing. Would love to know. Love, lynne

      • John Orton

        Hello Lynne..please feel free to email me at and I will send you an update on myself and family etc.

      • John Orton

        Hello Lynne, was hoping to hear back from you again. I have spoken with Bill Lewis the other day and he remembers you well. Bill has recently retired to the Uk. I also spoke with my sister Teri who was wondering if you knew Marie Terese Lucas and Charles Lucas. We think Charles was killed in action in S Rhodesia, but do not know where Marie Terese ended up.
        I am living in Ireland where my wife and I moved to in 1980. Set up a mushroom farm and raised our family of 2 boys and a girl and I now have 8 grand children. My dear wife died in 2005 and I ran the business through to 2012 before decided to retire. I attended Allan Sanderson’s funeral in 2007 in Edinburgh and met with his wife,Pat and daughter, Tracey.
        I have also recently been in touch with Alister Smith whose father worked with Alan Sanderson in the military hospital in Zomba
        Take care, John.

  10. Ian Weir

    Hi John
    Must phone again. Neil (91 this year) and Rosemary (86 this year) are well in Henley on Klip SA. Kids are all fine except Alister, who is well into the chemo and glows in the dark (more or less). The many grandchildren and two great grand children are all flourishing. Hi Lynne Pritchard and Bill Lewis. Remember you well. Trust you remember us. All take care, Ian.

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